image 2019-08-27

Repost spoke with Sherzod Kattakhodjaev, Deputy Head of the State Unitary Enterprise “PU Makhsustrans,” on the status of waste sorting and processing.

                                Repost spoke with Sherzod Kattakhodjaev, Deputy Head of the State Unitary Enterprise “PU Makhsustrans,”

                                                                                  on the status of waste sorting and  processing.

 

                                                               How are solid household waste (MSW) sorted and recycled today?

Today we serve the city of Tashkent. 1802 tons of solid waste are formed per day. Sorting takes place mainly at garbage collection points (SMEs). In total, in the city we have 560 SMEs, they are located at a distance of 150-200 meters from residential buildings, and each person can hand over their sorted garbage there.

We have four main methods for collecting garbage: the signal method in the mahallas, collecting points from SMEs, collecting from organizations and enterprises, and collecting garbage from the streets. We have duty cars serving SMEs, and they are engaged in garbage collection from the streets.

Of these, the most sorted is garbage from SMEs, where a certain person is attached, who has been in this place for a long time and works full time. Garbage is sorted into paper, plastic, glass and general waste manually, and then it is disposed of at recycling plants. It’s hard to say the exact numbers, but an average estimate of 10% of the garbage is sorted.

The signaling method works mobile - people with SMEs succeed in sorting. What is not sorted goes on to the transshipment station (there are two of them in Tashkent: in Yakkasaray and Yashnabad).

 

At these stations, there are now semi-automatic sorting lines: the garbage enters the conveyor, and people manually sort it. There goes all the garbage that they do not have time to sort by four basic methods. Then it is discharged into large cylinders, where it is pressed. From 3-4 cars the garbage is packed in one big cylinder of 27 cubes. Then these cylinders are taken out of the city to the landfill. There are sorting lines at the landfill, but there people completely sort the garbage manually.

The lines that are available at the stations are pilot, and we were convinced that the quality of the garbage is actually not very good, because all of it is pressed and mixed, losing its presentation, and manufacturers are reluctant to accept it, because recycled materials are considered Low quality.

The best quality garbage, of course, remains with SMEs, because these are first-hand hands.

 

On behalf of Mahsustrans, you stated that it is planned to introduce a system for sorting garbage in the near future, for which they will pay or deduct the amount from tariffs).

                        

                                                                                      What stage is this project at?

The project is pilot and challenging. We launched it recently. He must push people to sort the trash. We want to use the soft push method. The Ministry of Innovation contacted us and they want to test this method in practice.

 

What methods can convince people to start sorting garbage? The Mininnovation is now engaged in the development of the concept, but on our part it is logistics, the collection of separately sorted garbage, containers. That is, this is an integrated approach to this matter and several parties are involved in this project.

 

As part of this pilot project, we took one makhalla in the Yakkasaray district on Serazhedinova Street: there are 209 houses, 1090 people. We spoke with the mahalla committee, and they gave us the go-ahead. And now we are taking measurements, that is, we are now measuring how much garbage is formed per day from this mahalla, from this street.

 

                                                                  When you introduce this project, will the price of tariffs rise?

No, our goal is the opposite. On the contrary, we want to lower tariffs. We have a specific clear goal - to alleviate the burden of tariffs on people. This is one of the methods of stimulating the people. We give them an explicit message, give us sorted garbage, and in return we will provide containers and reduce your tariff or charge some bonuses.

 

A person takes out separately containers with paper, plastic on Monday, Tuesday with glass, and on Wednesday general rubbish (everything that is not recycled). We do not take money for the removal of containers on Monday and Tuesday (they pay for themselves), we only take for the removal of general garbage. The tariff is calculated monthly, no matter how much garbage you produce.

The norm per person is 870 grams per day. But if we reduce it by half by sorting, this means we will take out garbage twice less and, saving on transport, thereby reducing tariffs.

 

                                                                                  You say use a mild approach technique.

                                               Will any activities be organized to highlight the problem of sorting garbage?

This is a whole cycle, it’s not only giving a container to a person and that’s it. We cannot walk and knock on every house, explaining what and how to do it — it requires large resources. We are looking for other methods. At the moment, we are developing a concept of how to more correctly and clearly convey information about the benefits of sorting to people. Perhaps just the media will also play a role in this.

 

Maybe we will do some kind of show - people are not interested in going to the training camp of the mahalla committee. And this will be a show where everything will be accessible to explain and at the same time fun. Maybe there will be some practical jokes so that people have more interest.

There is another option, we want to consider a group of children, because in any family, the initiator of all ideas is children. We need to somehow interest them, and adults will catch up with them.

 

Now we have provided an opportunity for people to sort, we have put three containers in SMEs. At the moment, a person has a choice whether to sort him or not.

On some streets there are tanks with separate collection of garbage.

 

                                                                             Do they function as they should?

We do not service street trash - we deal with larger containers. Street garbage collection takes place from the ground, not from street bins. These small containers are controlled by the service companies that are responsible for cleaning these streets. Within the framework of “Makhsustrans”, we cannot yet provide small park areas, while we do not have this. Now we have a goal to master at least households.

 

                                                            And what kind of processing factories do we have at the moment?

We have a paper processing factory, where in the future they make toilet paper, napkins, cardboard - paper is considered a very popular product. PET (the type of plastic from which the bottles are made) is very well processed.

We can even boast that, among other CIS countries, we occupy a leading position in the processing of PET, from which, as far as I know, flex is used as a raw material for creating filler for pillows. There are companies that even produce carpets from PET. Glass, aluminum, iron, scrap metal, and tin products are also processed. In general, we have an enterprising people, everything will find application.

Organic waste is hazardous to the environment and if sent

to landfills, they emit a huge amount of greenhouse gases, accelerating global warming.

 

                                                                           What will be the fate of organics in Uzbekistan?

You have covered a very extensive topic. We have issued a presidential decree to bring sorting to 60% by 2023, and now we are working on it. Of all the garbage, more than 50% of the waste is organic. If we achieve that we can separate organics, we will show great results. One of our goals: we want to accustom the population to at least separate organics, that is, to separate wet and dry fractions. Everything dry is easily separated from each other if organic matter is not mixed there.

 

                                                                                        So how do you sort the trash?

If you still decide to start sorting the garbage, then here's a summary of how to sort it correctly.

First, we separate paper, plastic, glass, aluminum cans and organic waste, glass and aluminum cans can be kept separate. Secondly, we understand what can be recycled and what cannot.

 

All paper, cardboard, if it is free of impurities (that is, without the addition of plastic, such as packaging from juice or milk) can be recycled. Checks (because it is thermal paper), dirty / oil paper do not go for recycling. Before delivery, you need to carefully check the paper for the presence of various stickers, adhesive tape, paper clips and other excess items and, if possible, remove them.

 

Plastic labeled 1 (PET), 2 (HDPE), 4 (LDPE), 5 (PP), as well as plastic bags are recycled. Plastic with an admixture does not go where the marking has a “/” sign (for example, C / PP). This type of plastic is difficult to recycle, as there are impurities that are difficult to separate and recycle, as well as plastic labeled “3” (PVC), as it is toxic, and “6” (PS). Before delivery, the plastic should be thoroughly washed with food debris, remove all stickers, pieces of paper (if possible), dry and wrinkle.

 

Any glass without any attached plastic parts (for example, deodorants) is accepted for recycling. Before delivery, also check for stickers and pieces of paper and wash off leftover food. Similar actions must be carried out before sorting aluminum products.

 

Where can I take all sorted garbage?

Two trash bins for paper and plastic have appeared on many trash bins. According to Sherzod Kattokhodzhaev, one can hand in your sorted garbage there, which will go to the processing plants.

If you do not fully trust SMEs, then you can also hand over your garbage to the Hashar Week collection point, but there is only one (next to Next).